History of Palestine


Adaptation of a Greek word meaning Land of Philistines. A historic region on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

8000 BC
Permanent agricultural settlements appeared in Jericho.

1000 BC
Palestine divides into the regions of Judea and Samaria.

 721 BC
Samaria destroyed by Assyria.

587 BC
Judea destroyed by Babylonia.

70 AD
Romans shatter Hebrew Statehood.

The Muslim conquest brings Palestine under the sway of the Islamic Caliphate.

Roman Crusaders overtake Jerusalem.

Mamelukes of Egypt take back Jerusalem.

Palestine occupied by the Turkish Ottoman Empire.

The total population of Palestine was 500,000 of whom 47,000 were Jews who owned 0.5% of the land.

Following the appearance of anti-Semitism in Europe, Theodore Herzl, the founder of Zionism tried to find a political solution for the problem in his book, "The Jewish State". He advocated the creation of a Jewish state in Argentina or Palestine.

First Zionist Congress (Basle, Switzerland) declared Palestine the Jewish Homeland. Participants developed a structure of government which could be transferred to Palestine at some future time, including the World Zionist Organization to link all Jews together, the Jewish National Fund to acquire land, a committee to manage finances, a political committee to govern the land.

Fourth Zionist Congress decided to establish a national home for Jews in Argentina.

The Zionist congress decided the Jewish homeland should be Palestine.

With the outbreak of World War I, Britain promised the independence of Arab lands under Ottoman rule, including Palestine, in return for Arab support against Turkey which had entered the war on the side of Germany.

November 2, 1917
British government issues Balfour Declaration. Promising the Jewish people an independent Jewish state in Palestine. At that time the population of Palestine was 700,000 of which 574,000 were Muslims, 74,000 were Christian, and 56,000 were Jews.

December 1917
British troops invade Palestine capturing Jerusalem.

The Palestinians convened their first National Conference and expressed their oppostion to the Balfour Declartion.

The San Remo Conference granted Britain a mandate over Palestine and two years later Palestine was effectively under British administration, and Sir Herbert Samuel, a declared Zionist, was sent as Britain's first High Commissioner to Palestine.

The Council of the League of Nations issued a Mandate for Palestine. The Mandate was in favor of the establishment for the Jewish people a homeland in Palestine.

The Palestinians held a six-month General Strike to protest against the confiscation of land and Jewish immigration.

London Round Table Conference produces the White Paper of the Year which promises Arabs to establish an independent Arab Palestine in Palestine 10 years from the date, and eliminate the Jewish migration to Palestine to 1,400 per year until 1944, after which Jewish migration will cease.

Jewish-British War. Jewish groups in Palestine try to expel Britain. Mainstream Jewish fighters under David Ben Gurion are called Hagana. They later become the Israeli army. Two separate military groups (Irgun Zvai Leumi led by Menachem Begin and Lehi or the Stern Gang led by Yitzhak Shamir) resort to assassination and bombings. Many British soldiers and Arab civilians are killed.

Britain decides it cannot bring peace to Palestine and turns the matter over to the United Nations. In Resolution 181 the UN votes to partition Palestine into Jewish and Palestinian states with an international enclave around Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Arab leaders reject the plan and insist on a united Palestine with a secular government. Fighting begins between Jews and Palestinians. Many Palestinians become refugees.

Approximate population of Palestine: 1,650,000 Palestinians and 750,000 Jews.

April-May 1948
Massacres of Palestinians by Zionist groups Haganah and Irgun throughout Palestine.

Britain withdraws from Palestine. The state of Israel is established resulting in the 1948 War on May 14th between Israel and the Arab countries. 846,000 Palestinians are driven out of their homeland or flee the fighting that accompanied the creation of a Jewish state. Only 160,000 Palestinians remain in Israel itself.

Article 49 (6) of the Geneva Convention IV states: the occupying power (Israel) shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies, it also rejects and forbids the settlement of Jews in the West Bank area.

The Israeli government allows only a very few Palestinians to return after the war is over. By 1950, over one million Palestinians live in UN-supported refugee camps in Gaza, West Bank, Lebanon, and Jordan.

The establishment of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in Jerusalem.

The Palestine "Revolution" began on January 1st.

Approximate population of Israel and Occupied Territories: 1,660,000 Palestinians and 2,384,000 Jews.

The 1967 War begins June 5th with Israel occupying the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Jerusalem. UN issues Resolution 242 demanding Israel to withdraw from the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Approximately 250,000 more Palestinian refugees flee, or are forced into Jordan. After the 1967 Six Day War, Yassar Arafat is announced the leader of the PLO.

October or Ramadan or Yom Kippur War. Egypt and Syria attempt to regain lost territories. They push Israel back in the Sinai peninsula and initially in the Golan province. A massive airlift of US arms to Israel tips the balance.

United Nations issues Resolution 338 reaffirming the rights of the Palestinians to self-determination and national independence.

Yasser Arafat speaks to the UN exclaiming, "I come to you with an olive branch and a freedom fighter's gun; do not let the olive branch fall from my hand."

The Arab Nations issue the Rabat Resolution which proclaims the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.

Menechem Begin becomes Prime Minister of Israel. His Likud Party traditionally advocates a "Greater Israel" including the West Bank and Gaza and perhaps Jordan with unlimited settlements of Jews in Arab-populated areas under Israeli occupation. Anwar Sadat President of Egypt goes to Jerusalem to open talks.

Egypt and Israel sign the Camp David Accords. Israel invades Lebanon and seizes a "security zone" up to the Litani River.

Israel invaded Lebanon with the aim of destroying the PLO. Tens of thousands were killed and made homeless in the wake of the invasion which culminated in the massacres of Sabra and Shatilla.

The United Nations called for the convening of a Peace Conference with the participation of the PLO on an equal footing with the other delegates as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.

August 1985
Israel creates "Iron Fist Policy." Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin orders troops to break bones, demolish homes, hold administrative detention, and deport Palestinians.

December 1987
Palestinian Intifada (Uprising) begins. Palestinians commit themselves to goals which include; Palestinians have the same rights as all other people including, the right to determine their own future and to live in security and freedom.

Abu Jihad (PLO's number 2 leader) is assassinated on April 14th by an Israeli hit team. The PLO recognizes Israel, proclaims a Palestinian state, renounces terrorism, and calls for negotiations; as a result of the Israeli election. Yitzhak Shamir returns as Prime Minister. Following the United States government refusing President Arafat a visa to enter the US, the UN General Assembly held a special session on the question of Palestine in Geneva.

June 28, 1989
EEC Madrid Conference issued a new declaration calling for the PLO to be involved in any peace negotiations.

May 20, 1990
Seven Palestinian workers from Gaza were massacred by the Israeli gunman near Tel Aviv. Yasser Arafat addressed the UN Security Council in Geneva after the massacre in which he called for the deployment of a UN emergency force to provide international protection for the Palestinian people to safeguard their lives, properties and holy places. The US vetoed a motion which called for the Security Council to send a fact finding mission to the area. At the end of their hunger strike, Palestinian leaders in the Occupied Territories decided to boycott the US.

June 26, 1990
The EEC in Dublin issued a new declartion on the Middle East which condemned Israeli human rights violations and the settlement of Soviet Jews in the Occupied Territories. It also doubled its economic aid programme to the Occupied Teritories.

October 30: Madrid Peace Conference is held.
December 3: The bi-lateral talks between Israel and the Palestinians, Syrians, Jordanians, and Lebanese started in Washington.

Yitzhak Rabin becomes Prime Minister of Israel.
December 17, Israel deports 415 Palestinian activists: 251 from the West Bank, 164 from the Gaza Strip to Lebanon.

On September 13th Palestine and Israel sign Declaration of Principles in Washington, DC.

May 4, 1994
Gaza strip and Jericho Agreement in Cario.

August 29, 1994
Transfer of the power Agreement.

September 28, 1995
Palestinian Israeli Interim Agreement signed in Washington.

November 4, 1995
Israeli extremist Yagil Amir assassinates Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.

January 1996
Palestinians hold first Democratic Election. Yasser Arafat is elected President of Palestine.

May 28, 1996
Israel elects Benjamin Netanyahu Prime Minister, who since has refused to implement previous peace agreement.

September 1996
Israeli government opens tunnel in Jerusalem going against previous peace agreement which states the Jerusalem must not be altered in any way by either side until the final status of the peace agreement has been reached.

January 1997
Agreement of the redeployment from Hebron.

March 1997
The construction of the new Israeli settlement of Jabal Abu Ghneim (Har Homa) started. Cease of the peace talks because of the continous of the settlements policy of the Netanyahu Government.

July 7, 1998
The General Assembly adopts resolution 52/250, entitled “Participation of Palestine in the work of the United Nations,” voting overwhelmingly to upgrade Palestine’s representation at the United Nations to a unique and unprecedented level, somewhere in between the other observers on the one hand and Member States on the other. The resolution conferred upon Palestine additional rights and privileges of participation that had traditionally been exclusive to Member States.

September 1998
In September, the latest Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics census indicates that Israel’s population has reached approximately 5.9 million. Of that number, 4.7 million are Jews, approximately 230,000 of whom live in settlements in the occupied territories, and nearly 1.0 million are Israeli Arabs. It also indicates that the population of settlers in the West Bank and Gaza rose by 3%.

December 1998
U.S. President Bill Clinton visits Gaza and Bethlehem on 14-16 December 1998, becoming the first American president ever to visit any Palestinian territory and to deal directly with Palestinian leaders and institutions on their land. During the visit, the President makes many important statements, coming very close to recognizing the Palestinian right to self-determination. The president is accompanied by his family and by a large official delegation which includes the Secretary of State and the National Security Advisor. President Clinton addresses a meeting in Gaza which is attended by the Chairman Arafat, the speaker of the PNC, the speaker of the Palestinian Council, members of the PNC, the Central Council and the Palestinian Legislative Council, as well as by Palestinian heads of Ministries and other personalities .

October 1998
Wye River Memorandum signed by Israel and Palestine. The Memorandum dictates that Israel must withdraw from an additional 13% of and stop building settlements in the Occupied Territory. Palestine must fight terrorism and change the PLO Charter to acknowledge Israel as a state. Palestine complies…Israel does not.

May 17th, 1999
Ehud Barak defeated Benjamin Netanyahu in the Israeli election.


Palestine Crisis Chronology

(September 27, 2000-November 8, 2000)


September 27th


  1. Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and former head of the right wing Israeli Likud party is cleared of corruption charges, opening the way for a possible political comeback.
September 28th


  • Likud party head Ariel Sharon and 6 other Likud leaders paid a visit to the Al-Haram Al Sharief in Jerusalem, the compound that houses the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Islam. Interpreted as an apparent show of force to undermine Netanyahuís influence. Clashes erupt between protesting Palestinians and Israeli security forces.
  • September



  • More than 1,000 Israeli police were reported to have surrounded the Haram and to have clashed with its worshippers. At least 7 Palestinians were killed and 255 injured (LAW). According to several eyewitness accounts, Israeli military personnel prevented ambulances and medical personnel from entering the compound to transport the wounded (Defense Children International, press release).
  • The clashes are the worst since 1996, when Israel opened a pedestrian tunnel near Al-Haram Al Sherief which resulted in violent clashes and a death toll of 60 Palestinians and 14 Israelis.
  • Palestine Cabinet meets in Ramallah and declares the following day a day of mourning.
  • September 30th


  • Violent demonstrations erupted in most of the major districts and towns of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, particularly in the towns of Hebron, Ramallah and Gaza. Reported Israeli use of live ammunition, dum-dum bullets, rubber coated steel bullets was considered evidence of Israeli excessive and unnecessary use of force against demonstrators. According to various Palestinian medical sources and field researchers of local human rights groups, the majority of the injuries sustained were to the upper parts of the body, including chest, neck, head or eyes. Moreover, in a press release, Defense Children International/Palestine section confirmed that out of the 550 injuries, 175 cases were children aged 9-18 years. The release also mentioned that the dayís clashes resulted in 6 more Palestinian deaths, 4 of which were minors.
  • The killing of 12 year old Mohamed El Durra as he attempted to hide with his father behind a concrete block in GAza, (caught on film by a French camera crew), brought about an International wave of condemnation of what was considered a disproportionate use of force by Israel. The Israeli army released a statement that it would look into the incident, but also accused Palestinians of "making cynical use of children and women by bringing them to flashpoints" (Dallas Morning News).
  • Meanwhile, Barak had an emergency meeting with senior defense officials and ministers Shlomo Ben Ami and Amon Lipkin-Shahak to discuss the recent developments. According to Haíaretz, Barak stated that "our restraint is the best proof that we do not wish further confrontation". He was also quoted to have assured that "no one doubts who is stronger or more capable of sustaining s fight". Israel also accused the leaders of the Palestinian youth paramilitary group Fatah and leading members of the Palestinian security apparatus to be directly responsible for staging the disturbances in the West Bank.
  • October 1st


  • Top Israeli officials and army commanders were said to have met with the Palestinian security officials to try and calm down the situation. "Cease-fire" lasted only a few hours.
  • Confrontations continued throughout the West Bank and Gaza and extended beyond the "Green line" (1948 of Israel). Clashes were particularly violent in the Palestinian Arab towns of Um el Fahm and Nazareth, where more than 30 people were reported injured, and one dead. Moreover, general strikes were declared in several of the Arab-Israeli towns. (Addameer, Breaking News)
  • Eyewitnesses report Israeli deployment of light anti armor rockets at a Palestinian military intelligence base at the entrance of Rafah, Gaza. According to a Reuters report, more than 17 Palestinians were also wounded by Israeli bullets in the Gaza Strip near the Jewish settlement of Netzarim. Moreover, a fierce gun battle broke our when Palestinian police was said to have returned fire at Israeli soldiers. Two soldiers died as a result in separate incidents.
  • More clashes with Israeli soldiers at Josephís Tomb in Nablus, a Jewish holy site where Palestinian demonstrators were said to have stormed the site and set fire to it. Clashes resulted in the killing 2 Israeli soldiers, a member of the Palestinian National Security Forces and injuring 65 other. The killing of the Israeli soldiers by angry Palestinian mob was condemned internationally. Israeli forces were sharply criticized by several human rights groups for deliberately targeting those not directly involved in the clashes, such as medical personnel and journalists. According to Al Haq, ambulances were constantly denied, roads to hospitals obstructed (press release 56/2000).
  • Major roads throughout the West Bank and Gaza were sealed off to civilian traffic. Arafat demanded that Israeli troops withdraw from the entrances of Palestinian towns and called upon the UN to form an international committee that would investigate the events of the past few days.
  • October 2nd


  • In response to a call by two Palestinian human rights groups (LAW and the Palestinian Center for Human Rights) a mission composed of 4 international organizations arrived in the Occupied Territories to investigate the violations committed. The organizations represented by the mission were the International Commission of Jurists/Sweden, the International Federation of Human Rights/Paris, the Euro-Mediterranean Network for Human Rights/Denmark and Human Rights Watch/USA.
  • Israeli was said to have fired LAU missiles at residential areas in a number of West Bank and Gaza towns, while Israeli helicopter gunships opened fire to quell demonstrations. Israeli and Palestinian police traded fire in nearly every major West Bank and city. More than 200 injuries were reported.
  • Inside Israel, Palestinian demonstrators continued to clash with Israeli troops. More than 80 Israeli Arabs were injured and one 22 year old Palestinian was shot dead (LAW, release).
  • By the end of today, the official number of casualties was cited to be 36 dead (12 of which are children) and over 1,200 injured (Defense for Children International, press release).
  • October 3rd


  • Tanks and air missiles continue to be part of Israeli armyís response to demonstrations. 3 more Palestinians were killed (Al Haq, news update).
  • UN Security Council meets to discuss events.
  • October 4th


  • Israeli Prime Minister and Palestinian Authority President Arafat met with French President Jacque Chirac and US Secretary of State Madeline Albright in Paris. Both sides were reported to have agreed to withdraw their "forces" from flash points.
  • Total number of Palestinians killed rose to 55, (9 inside Israel and the remaining in the West Bank and Gaza). According to Al Mezan Center, 77% of the casualties among them were children (press release 5). It also deplored Israelís deployment of "Special Forces", which are Israeli soldiers disguised as Palestinian civilians, (also used during the Intifada 1987-1994). An Israeli spokesman claimed that troops only fire live ammunition in response to fire" and "when lives are threatened" (New York Times).
  • The International Committee of the Red Cross "deplored" the targeting of at least 18 red crescent ambulances by gunfire, citing the obligations of military forces under the Geneva Convention to "respect and protect civilians and to apply the principle of proportionality whenever the use of force is required."
  • International support culminates in pro-Palestinian rights demonstrations in all major Arab and international cities.
  • October 5th


  • More than 200 were arrested by Israeli police in East Jerusalem (Al Mezan, press release).
  • October 6th


  • West Bank and GaStrip are sealed off by Israeli army
  • October 7th


  • Hizbollah abducts 3 Israeli soldiers near South Lebanon. In response to the kidnapping, Israeli Jewish civilians attacked Israeli Arab laborers, resulting in the injury of dozens, and destruction of a 200 year old mosque in Tiberias.
  • Barak issues a 48 hour ultimatum to Arafat
  • UN Security Council passes resolution 1322 (2000) condemning Israelís "excessive use of force against Palestinians, resulting in injury and loss of human life", and calling upon it "to abide Öby its legal obligations ..under the Fourth Geneva Convention". USA abstained from the resolution.
  • Various sources reported attacks on neighborhoods by settlers, particularly in Nablus, Ramallah and Jerusalem. Numerous accounts mention acts of opening fire by the former, burning and vandalizing houses and destruction of private property (Al Haq, press release 00/85).
  • October 8th


  • Death toll as a result of confrontations rose to 78 (Al Mezan, press release).
  • 300 Israeli-Jewish rioters attack the house of Israeli-Arab Knesset member Azmi Bishara, stoning his house and declaring their intention to burn down the house. Shortly afterwards, Bishara sends a letter to Kofi Annan, calling for immediate UN intervention and the protection of the Palestinian national minority rights inside Israel, as stipulated in the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (1992).
  • October 9th


  • Barak indefinitely extends ultimatum.
  • UN Secretary General Kofi Annan arrives in the region in an attempt to negotiate an end to the crisis.
  • October 10th


  • At its 253rd meeting, the UN Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People expressed grave concern at the continued confrontations and resulting loss of life, and stated that it considered them to be the consequence of Israelís refusal to abide by its obligations under the Fourth Geneva Convention and the provisions of relevant Security Council and General Assembly resolutions.
  • More than 80 dead (of which 20 children, and more than 2000 injured (Statement of the UN Human Rights Commission)
  • October 12th


  • 2 Israeli soldiers in the town of Ramallah were reported to have been taken into Palestinian police custody and beaten to death by enraged Palestinian mob (Physicians for Human Rights, Report 3/11/20000).
  • According to a statement by the International Press Institute, Israeli helicopters were reported to have fired missiles on the Voice of Palestine station, forcing it off air. The attacks also targeted Palestinian Authority headquarters, in what was interpreted as an act of retaliation for the killing of the two Israeli soldiers. Holding the Palestinian Authority responsible, a statement by the Israeli Defense Force asserted that "this operation was a symbolic warning to the Palestinian leadership to let it know we will nor stand idly", and threatened to further bomb Palestinian military posts. Meanwhile, Arafat is said to have ordered an investigation into the killing of the two captive soldiers (Reuters report).
  • Following the Israeli retaliation, which resulted in the complete destruction of the central police station and the injury of 16 people, Amnesty International expressed grave concern for the safety of Palestinian civilians. Other missile attacks were reported to have taken place in Gaza. According to Mustafa Barghouti of the Union of Palestinian Medical Relief Committees, this incident has "only served to intensify Palestinian anger and frustration" (Grassroots International, Statement).
  • BBC reports the mobilization of Israeli reserve troops in preparation for a possible authorization to seize strategically important positions in the areas controlled by the Palestinian Authority should the confrontations persist.
  • Palestinians under the age of 45 were barred from entering the mosque compound in Jerusalem for the Friday prayers. Brief clashes resulted in the injury of 10 people.
  • Tight blockade of the Palestinian territories remained in force.
  • October 13th


  • Mass rallies took place in the major West Bank towns of Jenin, Tulkarim, Nablus and Qalqilia, in protest of the Israeli closure of main roads in the Palestinian territories. According to estimates by the Palestinian Authority, each day of closure results in a loss of $10,000,000 and preventing thousands of Palestinians from reaching their work place and children from reaching their schools. 217 cases of injury were reported (Addameer Center).
  • October 14th


  • US President Clinton announces summit to take place in Egypt
  • By today, 91 Palestinians have died, including a high proportion of children, thousands injured and hundreds imprisoned while being denied detainees rights of due process (World Organization Against Torture, Statement).
  • October 15th


  • Clashes erupted in a number of cities in the West Bank and Gaza following the mass rallies against the closures. The town of Jenin was declared a closed military zone, while Hebron remained under an imposed curfew for the 16th consecutive day. 16 injuries were reported during confrontations in Ramallah and Bethlehem, 6 of which from life ammunitions (Addameer, Update).
  • The Temple Mount and Land of Israel Faithful Movement, an extremist Jewish group that is committed to resurrect a Third Jewish Temple in the place of the Al Aqsa Mosque, announced its intention to march to the mosque. Although their statement asserted that "the event has the approval of the Israeli authorities and will be protected by the Israeli security forces", Israeli police denied this, and march did not take place.
  • Hizbollah abducts an Israeli army colonel.
  • October 16th


  • US President Clinton, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, Palestinian Authority Leader Yasser Arafat, EUís .Javier Solana, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Jordanís King Abdullah meet in Sharm El Sheikh resort, Egypt.
  • Barak announces that he is close to a deal with Likud party leader Sharon to form a "national unity government", and that "my feeling is strong that the peace process in its present form has reached the end of the road at this point", However "Öultimately we will make peace with the PalestiniansÖ." (Yediot Aharonot).
  • According to a report in the Israeli newspaper Haíaretz, local Israeli commanders have been authorized by the Israeli army to apply a more relaxed live-fire orders in response to Palestine stone throwing. Palestinian human rights organizations condemned this as a clear violation of internationally recognized guidelines which requires law enforcement officials to "act in proportion to the seriousness of the offence and the legitimate objective to be achieved" and "use force only when strictly necessary" (LAW).
  • Death toll rises to 94.
  • Palestinian Center for Human Rights field officers reported that Israeli forces swept a 80-donum area in the town of Khan Younis in order to annex it to the adjacent settlement of Neveí Dekalim. At the same time, a siege was imposed on the area, thus preventing the farmers from reaching their lands in these areas. Meanwhile clashes erupted in Gaza and near the Israeli military outposts in Rafah, adjacent to the borders with Egypt. More than 30 people were injured.
  • October 17th


  • A senior Israeli official claimed that Israel and the Palestinians reached agreement on security issues at the summit in Sharm El Sheikh. According to media sources, it was agrees that both sides are to take concrete measures to stop the fighting, have a fact finding mission set up and resume the peace process. According to the same official "in addition to the written declaration read by President Clinton, the two sides reached a mutual understanding on security issues that will be kept secret". According to Reuters News, both sides had agreed that they would consult with the USA within two weeks on how to resume peace negotiations.
  • Although Israel claims that they have arrested a number of Palestinians suspected of being involved in thkilling of the 2 soldiers in Ramallah last week, Palestinians officials denied this. Israeli officials on the other hand affirmed that these arrests were carried out in a joined operation between the 2 sides (BBC World Service).
  • Several incidents of settler attacks against farmers were reported in various locations throughout the West Bank, such as the town of Qalqilya, and the villages of Beit Fouriq and Salim, where farmers were prevented from picking their olives (a vital part of the local economy). So far 3 others had died as a result of settler attacks. With this incident, the death toll rose to 95, and more than 4,000 injured (Palestine Center for Human Rights, press release).
  • Eyewitnesses report the use of specialized rifles fitted with silencers by Israeli snipers to "take out" ringleaders of demonstrations and riots. According to an article in the Times (London), "victims just flopped down and bled, sometimes unnoticed".
  • Israeli forces were also reported to have used live ammunition against Palestinian laborers in Erez Industrial Zone, wounding several. Denying access to its 3,000 workers, the move triggered protests by the laborers, to which Israeli forces hence responded with tear gas and live ammunition. 13 were wounded by rubber bullets.
  • Meanwhile, Israeli closure of the West Bank and Gaza remains in full force, preventing the transfer of goods, medical supplies and people in and out of the Occupied territories, thus "effectively imprisoning residents" (Defense Children International, Release).
  • Human Rights Watch released results of the investigation that it conducted in the Palestinian territories (4-11 October 2000). The report condemned Israeli police and security for a pattern of using excessive, lethal force with demonstrators. It also strongly denounced incidents where Palestinian police were reported to have shot at Israeli from positions where civilians were present. However, it also noted that in cases when Palestinian security forces fired on Israeli soldiers, Israeli forces had failed to abide by international standards requiring them to direct lethal force at the source of the threat. Finally, it called on the special session of the UN Commission on Human Rights meeting this week in Geneva, to authorize the High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson to conduct an impartial investigation into human rights violations in the territories. Senior Israeli army officials had turned down repeated requests for a meeting to discuss the organizationís findings.
  • Similarly, UN investigator to the Palestinian territories Giorgio Giacomelli was quoted by Reuters to have stated that the scale of Palestinian deaths at the hands of Israeli forces during the recent wave of disturbances was "unprecedented". In the report on his mission (11-15th October 2000), he asserts that Israeli killings of Palestinians exceeded the first four months of the 1987 Intifada that had gripped the Palestinian territories. Furthermore, the report, which was issued to the human rights commission at a two day special session in Geneva, also said that at least "40% of an estimated 2,000-3,700 Palestinians wounded by Israeli occupation forces were under the age of 18 and that at least half of the injuries resulted from the use of live ammunition".
  • In its statement in front of t he Commission, the World Organization for Torture stressed that "Israelís choice of weaponry was the type usually reserved for battlefield military engagement and not for civilian demonstrations". Moreover, "Israel has made no single investigation into the use of force against Palestinians or the death of Palestinians occasioned by such force. No forensic evidence has been collected and no inquiry has been made".
  • According to Physicians for Human Rights, which reviewed admissions data for the West Bank and East Jerusalem hospitals, from September 29th till today, there were 2,299 emergency ward visits with 22% of the patients being admitted and 18% requiring surgery. Live ammunition was responsible for 30% of the injuries, and "rubber" bullets for another 40%.(Report, 3/11/2000).
  • October 18th


  • Despite the Sharm El Sheikh agreement, internal closure remains de facto. Clashes also continued around most of the major cities of Jenin, Ramallah, Tulkarem, Al-Bireh and Hebron, in addition to several villages. One Palestinian was killed. (Al Haq, Release). According to the Palestinian Center for Human Rights, clashes between demonstrators and Israeli soldiers in several areas of the Gaza Strip, particularly in the vicinity of the settlement of Kfar Darom, which resulted in the injury of more than 50 Palestinians by live ammunition. Villagers from Khirbet Qalqis also reported the expansion of a nearby settlement by clearing their land nearby for expansion. Rockets were allegedly also fired. In Jerusalem on the other hand, a peaceful rally was dispersed with tear gas by Israeli police, which also resulted in clashes, and a mass arrest campaign (Addameer, Update)
  • The International Federation of Human Rights releases the findings of its mission to the Occupied Territories. It established excessive and indiscriminate use of force. It also stressed that the impunity of Israeli forces is "in sharp contrast tot he judicial and administrative actions taken against Palestinians held in Israeli custody", and demanded the establishment of an international independent commission of enquiry.
  • In a statement by Habitat International Coalition to the Special Commission on Human Rights on the situation in the Palestinian Territories convening in Geneva, the organizationís representative called the commissionís attention to the violation of the right of "adequate housing". Israeli soldiers have reportedly occupied the homes of Palestinian civilians and "converted them into military positions, resulting in their destruction and/or eviction of the resident families". Moreover, the statement welcomed the Sharm El Sheik agreementís intention to establish a fact finding mission to investigate the sources of the crisis, however, it stressed that "like Security Resolution 1322, it offers no assurance that the human rights norms, or the requisite degree of objectivity would be applied". Moreover, it charged that "the indispensable human rights ingredients are so far lacking in the much hailed peace process led by the United States and evenÖthe Sharm Al Sheikh meeting apparently still has missed the point".
  • October 19th


  • According to a report released by the Office of the UN Special Coordinator regarding the impact of the recent events and resulting border closures and curfews, the economic losses are estimated at about "USD 8 million for each normal working day during the period 30th September- 19th October". According to the same report, the overall losses to the Palestinian economy during the same period "are estimated at USD 186.2 million. These losses exceed the value of donor disbursement to the Palestinian Authority during the first half of the year, which were USD 183 million".
  • Amnesty International called upon the USA government to cease all transfers of attack helicopter transfers to Israel, including the pending sale of Apache helicopters. (On September 25th, the Defense Department announced the possible sale of what the Israeli newspaper Haaretz had described as the "largest helicopter sale of the decade", involving both Apache and Blackhawk attack helicopters).
  • In a separate report, Amnesty revealed the findings of its delegationís visit to the Occupied Territories (October 4th, 2000), to investigate the use of force by Israeli security forces). According to the report, there has been a repeated resort to "excessive use of force in circumstances in which neither the lives of the security forces nor others were in imminent danger". And although it did confirm that "some of the Palestinians killed were members of the Palestinian security forces armed with firearms and shooting at Israeli security forces , however, the majority of people killed were taking part in demonstrations where stones were the only weapon used". Also, according to the informatgathered by Amnesty International, "it appears that a wide variety of non-lethal means of dispersal were readily available, but were not apparently used."
  • 9 Palestinians killed during clashes. According to the organization, "the Israeli government has been using US-supplied helicopters to commit human rights violations during its recent round of conflicts with the Palestinians and the US government must accept some responsibility for how such weapons are used".
  • October 20th


  • Fierce gunbattle outside the town of Nablus was reported to be the worst of the dayís clashes, leaving more than 100 wounded (the Associated Press). A total of 9 Palestinians were killed (Al-Haq, news update). There were also reports that Israeli forces shelled quarters in Beit Jala, Beit Sahour and the village of Zaíatara, using tanks and combat helicopters, resulting in the damage of several houses and the destruction of an electricity generator (Palestinian Center for Human Rights, release).
  • UN Commission on Human Rights narrowly endorsed Resolution E/CN.4/S-5/L.2/Rev.1 condemning the disproportionate and indiscriminate use of force Israel against Palestinian civilians. It also requested the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, to undertake an urgent visit to the occupied territories to facilitate the work of the commission and take stock of the violations. The resolution also referred to the on-going closure of the Palestinian territories, house demolitions and collective punishment as crimes against humanity. It was adopted by a vote of 19 in favor, 16 against (including the US, Canada, the EU and Israel), and 17 abstentions (Badil, release).
  • General Assembly also condemned the violence, and the excessive use of force against Palestinian citizens, by adopting a related resolution by a vote of 92 in favor, 6 against and 46 abstentions. The resolution also expressed support for the understandings reached at the Sharm El Sheikh summit, urging all parties to implement them without delay. Furthermore, it reiterated that Israeli settlements were illegal, and presented an obstacle to peace, and called upon Israel to abide by its obligations under the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 on the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War.
  • October 21st


  • Thousands of Palestinians marched in a funeral of 4 Palestinians killed in renewed clashes in the West Bank and the vicinity of the settlement of Kfar Darom, Rafah and Deir El Balah in the middle of the Gaza Strip. In Khan Younis refugee camp, clashes broke out near an Israeli military post. At least 60 were reported injured. Other clashes were reported in the cities of Hebron, Al-Bireh, Qualquilia, Nablus, and Bethlehem resulting in the injury of more than 60 people and the death of 3 civilians. In Jenin, settlers were reported to have attacked the residents of a nearby village and to have cut off electricity to it. In Jerusalem clashes erupted particularly around Shufat and Kalandia refugee camps. Residents stated that Israeli forces sealed off a number of roads as a result, and arrested a number of youths (Addameer, Update).
  • Total death toll amongst Palestinians has increased to 112 (including 34 children) (LAW) and 3,200 wounded (Palestine Center for Human Rights).
  • October 22nd


  • In its final declaration, the Arab emergency summit in Cairo, stopped short of calling for breaking ties with Israel (Associated Press). It allocated funds to support the Palestinian population in the Occupied Territories and called for a United Nations-led "international war crimes tribunal" to investigate actions committed by Israeli soldiers during the recent clashes, and requested a UN presence in Gaza and the West Bank to prevent future Israeli-Palestinian clashes. Arab leaders were also said to have agreed to end all steps toward normalization of relations with Israel, stopping just short of calling for the cutting of all existing ties. Numerous statements issued this afternoon by Palestinian organizations stated their disappointment with the lack of response (Addameer, update). According to Roni Shaked writing in Israeli newspaper Ydiot Aharanot, "the decisions taken are like a bathhouse without water" (Mideast Mirror, 23/10).
  • Prime Minister Ehud Barak was reported to have informed his Cabinet that Israel would take a "time out" and reassess its position, while continuing with the Palestinian peace process (CNN). According to the Israeli newspaper Yediot Ahronot, Barak believes that "the right thing to do is to establish a national emergency government", and to create a complete separation between the Palestinian Authority and Israel. Implementing separation is already taking place through the blocking of roads and building of fortifications, (Gush Shalom, press release 21/10/2000). One senior Israeli official was reported to have stated that "the complete separation will be carried out within a few weeks" and that the army has been instructed "to do everything to hasten the process" (Maíariv, p. 18 23/10/2000). According to CNN news report, Arafat response was that "our people (are) continuing the road to Jerusalem, the capital of our independent Palestinian state. To accept or not to accept it, let him go to hell".
  • Meanwhile Israeli Defense Forces fired at the neighborhoods of Beit Jala with gunship helicopters and tanks (The Alternative Information Center). Clashes and confrontations continued in many West Bank cities, resulting in the killing of 5 Palestinians and the injury of other (Al Mezan). It was reported that the cities of Hebron and Ramallah came under attack by heavy machine gunfire. Hebronís Israeli controlled areas remained under an imposed curfew for the 23rd consecutive day (Addaemeer, update). In Nablus and Bethlehem, incidents of Israeli settler attacks against farmers and residents were also reported. Furthermore, Israeli forces began re-closing the main entrance to Bethlehem. In the course of the same Israeli attack Bethlehemís main transformer was damaged leaving it, Aida refugee camp and Beit Jala in the dark (Badil Resource Center, release 23/10). Jerusalem remained isolated, with the wave of mass arrests continuing.
  • According to Israelís Jerusalem Mayor Ehud Olmert, the night time raid on Beit Jala was a "proportional Israeli response" to alleged Palestinian shooting on Israeli settlers in Gilo settlement. Reports indicate that the army broadcast for the evacuation of Beit Jala were broadcast and later declared it a closed military area. (Badil Resource, same).
  • October 23rd


  • According to Physicians for Human Rights-Israel, from October 1st till today, 17 Palestinian ambulances were "utterly destroyed" by Israeli forces, and from October 19th till today an additional 26 ambulances had been damaged by gun fire (Report, 3/11/2000).
  • Total number of Palestinians killed reaches 120 (Al Mezan Center, press release).
  • Formal negotiations between Likud leader Ariel Sharon and Prime Minister Barak on the formation of an emergency government (Mideast Mirror/Israel Section).
  • Israel re-closes Gaza International Airport., the Rafah border passage and King Hussein border passage. As a result, trucks carrying medical aid could not enter the territories (Al Mezan, press release 24/10/). The airport was first shut two weeks ago, but flights had resumed after the Sharm El Sheikh summit (BBC news room).
  • Israeli forces reinforced their positions in the Gaza Strip, especially in Khan Younis and Deir El Balah. Branch entrances to both cities were closed off with cement blocks, and a roadblock was placed on the main road linking north and south Gaza. Israeli military was reported to have attacked Beit Jala, Hebron and Jenin, killing 2 civilians and damaging at least 10 houses (Addameer, update).
  • Mass protests continued throughout the West Bank and Gaza. Clashes broke out in the Gaza Strip, resulting in the injury of more than 25 people. Other clashes were reported in Khan Younis, near an Israeli military site known as Al-Nouria, 50m west of the refugee camp of Khan Younis. The same source stated that two rockets were also fired at houses on the bordwith Egypt in Palestine (Palestine Center for Human Rights, press release).
  • Following the decisions of the Arab summit Morocco closed down the Israeli liaison office in the capital Rabat, as well as its own office in Tel Aviv, in protest against the Israeli measures in the Occupied Territories. Morocco, is the third Arab country after Oman and Tunisia to make such a move. Meanwhile Mauritania also announced that it considered suspending its diplomatic ties with Israel only established this year. Noteworthy is that Jordan and Egypt, the only two Arab countries to have signed a peace treaty with Israel have refused to sever relations with the former despite popular pressure (United Press International).
  • October 24th


  • According to findings by Physicians for Human Rights (released November 3rd 2000), 53% of the 31 Palestinians killed in Gaza by today have been shot by high velocity weapons, 24,38% were under the age of 18.
  • According to the Israeli Defense Forceís most recent assessment, "violence in the territories is likely to continue for many months, and probably through next year" (Haíaretz, article by Amir Oren). There have been speculations that the new situation might turn ""the West Bank into a second Lebanon", (Maíariv 25/10).
  • Israel continues to seal off main West Bank towns, banning residents from entering or exiting. Military vehicles and heavy artillery have been positioned at various locations in the Gaza Strip where no military posts had previously been seen (LAW, update).
  • Clashes broke out in northern Gaza in the area of Erez, Rafah and west of the refugee camp of Khan Younis. More than 50 people got injured (Palestinian Center for Human Rights), and 2 Palestinian killed in Jenin (LAW, press release). Other clashes erupted in areas of the West Bank and Gaza as mass protest rallies marched towards checkpoints separating the West Bank and Jerusalem. In Jericho, Aqbet Jaber Refugee camp was attacked by heavy gunfire from nearby Israeli settlement of Vered Yericho. There have also been reports that missiles were fired on residential areas in Beit Sahour and Tulkarem (Addameer, update).
  • Between 10,000-30,000 people from Jordanís 13 opposition parties participated in the " March of Return" along with legislators, political activists and trade unionists, towards the main Israeli controlled border crossing. As they attempted to cross the Allenby Bridge over the Jordan frontier, they clashed with Jordanian police in fighting that injured more 15 policemen and 120 demonstrators (Associated Press). In the past three weeks, thousands of demonstrators in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Yemen and elsewhere have staged protests and demonstrations denouncing in solidarity with the Palestinian people.
  • At Mitzpeh Hagit, east of Jerusalem, settlers who had been evacuated last year have returned to set up their mobile homes, claiming that they now permission from the Israeli government. Noteworthy is that settlers illegally established 42 outposts across the West Bank in an effort to prevent the transfer of land to the Palestinians. 30 of these settlements were allowed to remain. Settlers of the remaining 12 dismantled outposts were allowed to apply for a permission to legally establish communities (AP Worldstream).
  • Meanwhile negotiations between Labor and Likud and the prospects of forming a joint emergency government, are on-going.
  • Israeli government sources involved in contacts with the American administration is expected to ask Congress for a special military aid package for Israel. According to Israeli newspaper Haíaretz, Israel has asked the US for an "$ 800 million aid package, half to cover the costs of withdrawal from Lebanon, and half to finance development of an anti-missile defense programÖ.this would be on top of the usual military aid package, which will total $1.98 billion next year" (25/10).
  • Israeli Prime Ministerís Office published a document declaring that "separation from the Palestinians does not mean dissociation". The document also stated that Israelís goal is still a negotiated agreement with the Palestinians but that "this goal particularly in light of the recent events, may have to be translated into a number of interim goals, the central one being a start to implementation of a separation between Israel and the territories of Judea and Samaria" (Haíaretz, 25/10).
  • October 25th


  • A Palestinian man riding a bicycle died after detonating explosives on Thursday near an Israeli army outpost in Gaza, Israeli authorities said. The attack, believed to be a suicide mission, also slightly injured an Israeli soldier. CNN reported that the attacker was a 24-year-old man. The Israeli military has not yet released his identity. There was no immediate claim of responsibility by any group
  • 50 more Palestinians were injured in todayís confrontations throughout the West Bank and Gaza. Clashes were reported in Rafah, Khan Younis, Deir El Ballah , Tulkarem and Jenin where at least another 30 Palestinians were injured. Moreover, the villages of Beit Jala and Beit Sahour were again shelled by tank fire. Israeli settler attacks on farmers and confiscation of land were also reported in the Hebron and Jenin area and Nablus. Israeli military reinforcements have been seen at roadblocks throughout the Gaza Strip and on the borders of Nablus (Addameer, Update).
  • Israeli media reports that at least 700 Palestinians have been arrested since the outbreak of clashes.
  • According to Israeli news sources, the Palestinian leadership has called on the residents to boycott Israel, including severing ties and boycotting Israeli products (Yediot Aharonot).
  • 2 soldiers were wounded by a frebomb during clashes at the Ayosh junction on the outskirts of Ramallah.. Palestinians reported dozens were wounded (Maíariv, 26/10). In an assessment to the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, Major General Giora Eiland was reported to have informed the committee that "there is no doubt that in the next few months, there are chances that there will be serious deteriorationÖ" but that there is also "the possibility of a return to normal" (Yediot Aharonot).
  • Death toll rises as of today is 123, 39 of which are children. Total injured are estimated at close to 5,000 (LAW, update).
  • Meeting took place between Israeli and Palestinian security officials in an effort to restore security coordination between the two sides. According to Israeli media sources, Palestinian officials had promised to prevent and stop shooting at Israeli targets ( Yediot Aharonot 26/10). The same source reported that an exchange of fire tool place for a few hours in the area of Shdema camp east of Bethlehem, the Rachel tomb and North of Jenin.
  • British Foreign Minister Peter Hain says that he accepts that Israel must not be above International Law, and does not rule out the possibility of sending a UN monitoring force as demanded by the recent Arab League summit (IRNA).
  • In statements to the London based Al-Sharq Al Awsat daily, Secretary General of the Arab League Ismat Abdul Maguid stated that the Arab League has begun a serious of moves on the Arab and International levels to materialize the resolutions of the past summit, including halting all forms of regional economic cooperation with Israel (
  • October 26th


  • A press release by the Israeli Information Cemter for Human Rights BíTselem criticizes the prolonged curfew imposed, particularly on the "44,000 Palestinians in Hebron and Hawara", as it "harms all aspects of life of this large civilian population and constitutes a collective punishment forbidden under internationa; law".
  • US Congress approves a proposed decision that condemned Palestinians for the wave of violence in the area and expressed support for Israel. The non-binding proposal received the approval of 365 Congressmen and was opposed by 30 (Yediot Aharanot).
  • Israeli forces close the main road in the Gaza Strip, and announces it a closed military area. Palestinians consider this an attempt to complete the division of the Strip and isolate the cities in the Strip from each other (Mezan, press release).
  • According to AmneInternational, it is "deeply concerned about the failure of Israel to investigate as a matter of policy killings of Palestinians by Israeli forces over the past three weeks.", and is "also concerned that Palestinian authorities are not carrying out proper investigations into killings that have taken place in the areas under their jurisdiction."According to the same press release, the "current lack of investigations by either side makes it virtually impossible to hold anyone accountable for killings resulting from violations of human rights standards" and makes it all the more necessary that "a proper international, independent investigative team of experts is established as soon as possible and allowed to operate effectively in lie with international standards" (AI Index MDE 15/052/2000).
  • October 27th


  • Heavy clashes were reported with at least 250 Palestinians injured and 4 more killed. Clashes centered at the northern entrance of Ramallah , Tulkarem, Qalqilia much of the Gaza Strip, Jenin, Bethlehem and Hebron. It was also reported that Israeli military used machine guns and tanks against residential areas of the villages of Al-Bireh and Beit Sahour. Reports state that the attack took place near St. Nicholas Orthodox Church causing damage to a number of housesand to the YMCA facilities. According to Palestinian security sources, Palestinian General Intelligence headquarters in Jericho was also attacked. Worshippers were reported to have been prevented from entering Al Aqsa mosque for Friday prayers (Addameer, update).
  • The Executive Council of the World Muslim Congree called upon Islamic states to halt all cooperation with Israel over its treatment of Palestinians and ënot to resume an official or unofficial activities within the multilateral framework (of the peace talks) and also to stop all steps and activities of regional economic cooperation with Israel within its framework" (Reuters).
  • Meanwhile in a statement, Canadian NGOs affirmed that they "deplore the violence on both side and grieve the human loss of both Palestinians and Israelis". The statement also stated that "we believe the fundamental reason behind the outbreak of violence is the impasse in the peace process, which the Palestinians see as failing to meet the minimum standards of justice", and that it supports the demands that UN resolutions 242 and 338 be "the only basis on which to negotiate a sustainable peace settlement", citing that "there is nothing extremist in these demands".
  • October 28th


  • An Israeli army commander accused Palestinians of using children as shields in a gun battle that broke out in Ramallah in the West Bank the day before (CNN report).
  • Hizbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah called on the Palestinians to launch more suicide bombings against Israel after the Islamic Jihad group announced responsibility for the suicide mission earlier this week (Reuters).
  • Clashes continued in Bethlehem, where later this evening the village of Beit Sahour was subject to heavy attack from heavy machine guns, resulting in damage to a number of its residential area homes. Confrontations continued also in the Gaza Strip where at least 3 Palestinians were injured at the Beit Hanoun crossing, in addition to further 20 near the Tufah Checkpoint in Khan Younis. Other clashes were reported in Rafah, near the Egyptian borders. Much of the West Bank also continued to be a scene of unrest. In the city of Jenin, the Palestinian security forces headquarters were shelled, in addition to a number of residential areas. Other clashes were witnessed in Hebron, where Israeli military was reported to have shot at teachers attempting to reach their schools. Curfew imposed on Israeli controlled parts remains in force. An estimated 30,000 school children are believed to be unable to reach their schools as a result. In Tulkarem the area also remains under strict closure (Addameer, update).
  • October 29th


  • 150 Palestinians were injured and 7 more killed as a result of on-going confrontations between demonstrators and Israeli forces. At the same time, Israeli forces began clearing during nighttime 100 Donums worth of agricultural lands in Rafah (Al Mezan, press release).
  • In front of a crowd of 80,000 gathered for the Roman Catholic Church's 2000 Holy Year sports jubilee. Pope John Paul II urged an end Sunday to the month of bloodshed in the Middle East and appealed for a return to Israel-Palestinian peace talks (CNN 30/10)
    1. According to the Israeli human rights organization BíTeselemís as of today, 136.95 Palestinians, 2 foreign nationals and 14 Palestinian security force personnel have been killed so far by Israeli security force. At same time, 3 Israeli civilians and 3 Israeli security forces were killed by Palestinian civilians, and 2 Israeli security forces were killed by Palestinian security forces. In Israel, at least 13 Arab Israelis were also killed by Israeli police forces (Physicians for Human Rights, Report 3/11/2000)
  • October 30th


    1. Israel helicopters were reported to have fired missiles in Al Bireh, Nablus, Khan Younis, Jericho and Rafah. Reports state that the office of the Fateh Tanzim has been completely destroyed as a result of the attacks. Israeli helicopters were also said to have fired 3 missiles at Palestinian security base (National Security Force 17) in Khan Younis, and a center for the Fateh movement in Al Bireh (Al Mezan, press release). Sources also reported that the Palestinian General Intelligence headquarters in Jericho came under fire from the nearby settlement of Vered Yericho. The same sources confirm that as a reust damage has been casued to a number of houses
    2. Clashes erupted at the northern entrance of Al Bireh, injuring at least 23 Palestinians. In Gaza,clashes at the Mentar Crossings resulted in further injuries. Other confrontations were reported in Jenin and Hebron where a further 30 civilians were said to have been injured. In Bethlehem it was said that Israeli settlers prevented farmers from reaching their orchards.
    3. Closure remained in place on several villages in the Nablus area. Sources claim that the city came under heavy machine gun fire from the two mountains surrounding it and that a number of missiles landed near the Itihad hospital. Beit Sahour also came under similar attack. Israeli forces continued to clear lands owned by farmers in Rafah and Gaza Strip (Al Mezan, 48/2000).
    4. In Jerusalem 2 Israeli officers were shot at in front of the East Jerusalem branch of the Israeli government national insurance institute, killing one and wounding the other. The area was declared a closed military zone. The city witnessed confrontations around areas such as Shufat refugee camp, Qalandia and Al Ram., injuring several (Addameer, Update). A third Israeli civilian is believed to have been lynched when he strayed into "no man's land" between the Gilo suburb and the Palestinian village of Beit Jala (Mideast Mirror, 31/10, Israel section).
    5. International Airport of Gaza was closed for security" reasons (Al Mezan, 48/2000).
    6. According to a statement by Dr. MustafaBArghouti, president of the Union of Palestinian Medical Relief Committee in a press conference that was held in Jerusalem, 144 Palestinians have been killed and approximately 5,000 injured. According to his statistics, 92% of all Palestinian deaths were caused by bullets, and that 48.1% of all wounds have been sustained in the head and neck area. According to Dr. Barghouti, these assessments had been confirmed by various other medical groups (UPMRC, Special Report).
    October 31st


  • Shas, which has 17 seats in the 120-member Israeli Knesset, agreed to man the defenses for Prime Minister Ehud Barak for 30 days, if opposition parties try to topple him with no-confidence motions or a bill to dissolve the Knesset. However this does not close the door on other options, including an emergency coalition with the Likud, if Ariel Sharon agrees to enter without the right to veto major diplomatic decisions (Mideast Mirror, Israel section).
  • Deputy Defense Minister Ephraim Sneh announced that Israelís armed forces plan to use special squadstrained in counter-guerilla operations against the armed militia of Fatah and other gunmen in the territories accused of firing at Israeli army positions. According to the official, the squads would be "effective and smart" and "no innocent civilian will be killed". Former Palestinian Oslo negotiator Saeb Erakat described this as "really threatening and a real sign of escalation" (The Independent).
  • According to Btselem, an Israeli human rights organization, "95 Palestinians have so been killed by the Israeli security forces, plus a further 14 security men and 13 Palestinians with Israeli citizenship" (The Independent).
  • According to top Palestinian official Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen), the Palestinian Authority (PA) is seeking to restore calm in the Occupied Territories, including by banning the use of firearms by Palestinian protesters, as a prelude to resuming negotiations with Israel (Mideast Mirror, Arab section).
  • November 1st


    1. At a press conference in London, Amnesty International violations of human rights could constitute war crimes. Amnesty researcher Claudio Cordone, urged both sides to react to attacks with proportionate force, saying that Israeli troops had appeared to move from firing tear gas to lie rounds too quickly. Cordone was said to have quoted an Israeli official as telling Amnesty that forces have been on a virtual war footing since the fighting began in September, and that investigations into deaths at the hands of Israeli forces had been called off. Palestinian authorities also were criticized for failing to prevent children from joining street battles. According to the Amnesty representative, in cases where Palestinians had used guns, opponents had little choice but to fire back (Reuters).
    2. 2 Israeli soldiers were killed in heavy fighting near Bethlehem. According to Israeli sources, heavy sniper fire was directed at an army force near AL-Khader junction, followed by heavy fire on the Gilo settlement. According to IDF sources, this was the first time that Palestinians are said to have employed a relatively large force in their confrontations with the Israeli army. Prime Minister Barak convenes an emergency meeting of the security cabinet to approve the response. Cabinet decides to continue the policy of "measured response" though the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) proposes harsher measures (Haíaretz, 2/11/2000).
    3. A bomb explodes in Jerusalemís Talbieh neighborhood, near the Jerusalem Theatre, injuring one man (Haíaretz, 2/11/2000).
    4. Minister for Regional Cooperation Shimon Peres meets with Yasser Arafat in Gaza (Haíaretz, 2/11/2000).
    5. Israeli attacks with machine guns and LAW rockets were reported in Beit Jala, Beit Sahour, Al Khader, Tulkarem, Jericho, Al Bireh and Betunia. Clashes continued throughout the West Bank (including East Jerusalem0 and the Gaza Strip resulting in 6 more deaths and more than 150 injuries. In Nablus Israeli settlers were reported to have attacked Palestinian farmers in the village of Orif, Deir El Hattab, Salem and Huwarra and prevented them from entering their orchards. Other settler attacks were said to have taken place in the villages of Qabalan and Nazlit Issa in Tulkarem. In Jenin, the 2 villages f Silt Al Taher and Al Fandoukomiyeh were raided and a curfew was placed on the area. Several of its residents were arrested and transferred to a nearby settlement of Hormish. Tanks and armored cars were deployed in the nearby area, closing off all streets to both villages (Addameer, Latest developments No. 47).
    November 2nd


    1. Armed battle breaks out around Jericho, in which a reserve officer gets killed by Palestinian fire nearby Nahal outpost. In response, Israeli army helicopters were reported to have attacked the headquarters of thew Palestinian intelligence service in Jericho
    November 3rd


    1. Physicians for Human Rights released today its report containing its findings on medical and forensic investigation mission that it conducted in Israel and the occupied territories (October 20-27). According to the report, Israel Defense Forces have used live ammunition and rubber bullets "excessively and inappropriately" and that "Ösoldiers appear to be shooting to inflict harm than solely in self defense". According to the same report, there have been serious human rights abuses committed by both sides. "Israeli authorities as well as civilians have attacked and fired on civilian Palestinian and Israeli Arab targets and armed Palestinian authorities, groups and individuals have attacked Israeli civilians, soldiers and police". Of the first 1,134 injuries from the West Bank and Gaza, 70% were injuries to the upper body, with 49% of the target group aged 19-24, 17% 16-18 years, and 14% under the age of 15.
    November 4th


    1. Clashes were reported in Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, throughout the Gaza Strip, Jenin and Tulkarem, injuring more than 50 people. Random attacks by settlers and soldiers were also said to have taken place in several locations such as in the village of Hossan, Hebron, throughout neighborhoods in Jerusalem and Nablus, where in addition Palestinian land on the main road of Huwarra were bulldozed and trees uprooted. In Qalqilia, despite lifting of internal closure, travel from village to village remains difficult (Adaemeer, latest update).
  • November 5th


    1. Confrontations result in 2 more deaths and 80 injuries. Clashes continued to take place in Bethlehem in the village of Tquí, Ramallah, and Gaza. A new Palestinian refugee camp under the name: "Shepherds 2000" created in Bethlehem to shelter over 120 families who have lost their homes as a result of Israeli shelling. A new Israeli military installation was deployed near Rafah. In Nablus on the other hand Israeli forces continued to bulldoze agricultural lands and uproot olive trees. The village of Huwarra remained under an Israeli imposed curfew for the 29th day. Brief clashes were also reported in East Jerusalem (Addameer, latest developments).
    2. Other incidents of shelling occurred in Beit Jala, Hebron, Rafah and Khan Younis in Gaza where residential areas came under gun and missile attacks resulting in the damaging of many houses and greenhouses (Al Mezan, Ref 50/2000) and the injury of at least 6 Palestinians (Addameer, latest developments).
    3. According to the same press release by Al Mezan, since September 29th, 197.5 donums owned by Palestinians in the Gaza Strip have been cleared, and 129 houses either totally or partially damaged.
    November 6th


    1. 3 more Palestinians died as a result of clashes. Death tolls has risen to 170 (UPMRC, Appeal Update 7/11)
    2. Clashes erupted in Gaza at Mentar Crossing, Deir El Balah near Kfar Darom settlement, Briej Refugee Camp, Rafah, Khan Younis. At least 38 Palestinians were injured. Other confrontations were reported in Jenin where one was killed and in Hebron, injuring 9 others. In the latter, incidents of settler attacks against residents were also reported. Armed confrontation were said to have occurred in Jenin, Jericho and the residential area of Salfit which later though the day was shelled with tanks and heavy machine gun. Other biref clashes occurred in Bethlehem, Qalqilia and Nablus (Addameer, Update).
    3. Israeli forces shelled the cities of Tulkarem and Hebron in the West Bank and Hebron, with machine guns (Al Mezan, News upodate 7/11)
    4. Inad Theatre, the only childrenís community theatre in the southern part of the West Bank is shelled a second time in two weeks from the Israeli settlement of Gilo. According to eyewitness accounts around 8 Palestinians are injured in the process, and many more houses in the neighborhood damaged. (Inad Theatre release).
    5. Palestinian Legislative Council calls for an international force in the territories to create a buffer between Israeli forces and the Palestinians (Maíariv, 7/11/2000).
    6. Likud leader Sharon calls on his party to join efforts to topple Barakís government in order not to allow Barak to come to an agreement with the Palestinians under the "emmergency situation" rubric, which prevents Knesset factions from voting for its dissolution (Yediot Ahranot, 7/11/2000).
    7. Aeconomist which represents the International Monetary Fund in the West Bank and Gaza predicts a recession which could set the Palestinian economy back for years. United Nations economists in Gaza estimate that the siege imposed on the Palestinian territories had resulted in a loss of $250 million in its first month (The Independent).
    November 7th


  • Settlers were reported to have blocked the main road from Gaza City to Rafah and Khan Younis near the settlement of Kfar-Darom with cement blocs (LAW, Update 8/11), preventing the passage of citizens and vehicles. 12 injuries were reported today near Beit Hanoun, the Erez passage, the Karny passage and Rafah as a result of live ammunition. 3 were killed as a result of clashes and shelling in Tulkaremand Hebron (Al Mezan, Ref 51/2000)
  • Israeli imposed curfew remains in place throughout the West Bank and Gaza. Clashes continued in Betlehem, where at least 15 Palestinians were reported injured. The center of Beit Jala, Beit Sahour and Aida Refugee camp were also reported to have been shelled injuring civilians and damaging houses in the process. In Hebron reports were received that clashes resulted in the injury of civilians by live ammunition and that the Israeli military searched several homes and subjected it to heavy machine gun fire. The Israeli controlled section of the city remained under an imposed curfew for the 40th day. Other incidents of clashes were reported in Jenin
  • Ramallah, Tulkarem and throughout the Gaza Strip. In Qalqilia, Israeli authorities were said to have bulldozed Palestinian owned agricultural land and uprooted a large number of trees in Rafah. In Jerusalem on the other hand, home searches were conducted by police in three of its neighborhoods (Addameer, Update). Other reports indicate that Israeli forces closed down the main road between the north and the south of the Gaza Strip and the deploring of a large number of troops at the settlement of Kfar Darom (Palestine Center for Human Rights, Ref 158/2000).
  • A total of 160 Palestinians were believed to have been injured in todayís clashes (LAW, lawlist list member account).
  • Death toll rises to 158 dead and approximately 150 wounded (Palestinian Center for Human Rights, Ref 158/2000).
  • According to the Israeli newspaper Maíariv, Barak was quoted to have stated that "there has been no appeal so far to place international observers, but if such an appeal is forthcoming we will resist it vehemently" (p.8).
  • Meanwhile another Palestinian accused of having taken part in the Ramallah lynching has been arrested by Israeli security forces. In October Israeli authorities were said to have eight suspected lynchers (p. 9).
  • Israeli party Shas declared that it will vote against the bill for early elections if Likud decided to bring it forward to a vote (Israeli Radio News, 7:00 am).
  • November 8th


  • Israelís Foreign Minister cancels a meeting with the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson, after she cancelled talks with Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon and Jerusalem mayor Ehud Olmert, a member of the right wing Likud party, after Palestinians declared that they would not see her if she met with them (Associated Press)
  • Yasser Arafat sets off to meet Clinton, determined to push for an international peace keeping force to protect Palestinians, despite Israeli and American opposition (the independent).
  • Peace Now released details of budget submissions to the Knesset which shows that Barak intends to ask for 1.2 billion next year for Jewish settlements in the occupied territories (the Independent).
  • Closure imposed on the Gaza Strip has been reinforced this morning, including the international airport in Gaza and the Rafah border (Al Mezan/Reference 52/2000).
  • An average of 160 Palestinians were in the West Bank by live ammunition and rubber bullets. In the Jenin District, Israeli forces were said to have reinforced their positions near the town with tanks and to have used heavy machine guns to fire at the suburbs of some towns. Other shooting incidents were reported in the cities of Tulkarem, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Hebron, Beit Hanoun, Rafah and Khan Younis.
  • 2001
    On February 6, 2001, Ariel Sharon is elected prime minister of Israel, committed to rejection of the Oslo peace agreement. The Gaza airport runway is bulldozed.

    March of 2002, An Arab League summit meeting endorses a Saudi peace plan based on U.N. Resolutions 242 and 338.

    Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia proposed a Saudi peace initiative in March 2002 that formally changed the Arab world’s position on Israel. The proposal, endorsed by the Arab League, asked Israel to withdraw to the 1949 borders and establish an independent and sovereign state of Palestine with East Jerusalem as its capital. It stipulated that displaced refugees should either be allowed to return to their homes or be compensated for their loss of property. In return, the Arab states would consider the Arab-Israeli conflict over, sign comprehensive peace treaties with Israel, and normalize relations. The proposal was received with skepticism by Israel and had little practical effect.

    March 29, Israeli forces begin Operation Defensive Shield, Israel's largest military operation in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War. Within twenty-four hours, the Israel Defense Forces had issued emergency call-up notices for 30,000 reserve soldiers, the largest such call-up since the 1982 Lebanon War. The stated goals of the operation as claimed by Israelgovernment (as conveyed to the Israeli Knesset by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon on April 8, 2002) were to "enter cities and villages which have become havens for terrorists; to catch and arrest terrorists and, primarily, their dispatchers and those who finance and support them; to confiscate weapons intended to be used against Israeli citizens; to expose and destroy terrorist facilities and explosives, laboratories, weapons production factories and secret installations. The orders are clear: target and paralyze anyone who takes up weapons and tries to oppose our troops, resists them or endanger them - and to avoid harming the civilian population."

    By April 3, the IDF was conducting major military operations in all Palestinian cities with the exception of Hebron and Jericho. The major points of conflict were, Bethlehem, Jenin, Nablus, Ramallah. During the operation, strict curfews were placed on at least six major Palestinian cities, resulting in complaints by human rights groups that essential medical attention was being denied to sick and elderly Palestinians, as well as complaints that Israel was practicing collective punishment, which is prohibited under the Fourth Geneva Convention. In some cities, there were scheduled breaks in the curfews. In others, curfews continued uninterrupted for a week or more.

    Throughout the two weeks of fighting in Jenin and for a few days afterward, the city and its refugee camp were under curfew.

    The city of Bethlehem and its environs remained under curfew for five weeks, though there were periodic breaks, until an impasse involving Palestinian gunmen who had held hostage the clergy in the Church of the Nativity was resolved. Most of the armed Palestinians in the Church of the Nativity agreed to go to the Gaza Strip. The rest were exiled to Cyprus.

    Notable events were the battle of Jenin and the siege of Yasser Arafat's compound.

    April 12, Jenine refugee camp massacre

    June 2002 - Israel begins construction of the apartheid separation wall

    The Quartet Group (United States, United nations, European Union, and Russia) agree on a "Road map for Peace." Palestinians pledge full support, But Israel rejects key points. The separation barrier in the West Bank draws international criticism for undermining the peace process.

    November 11, Palestinians mourn loss of President.

    Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) is elected president of the Palestinian National Authority.

    On February 02, 2005, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas has accepted an invitation to a summit with Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon in Egypt next week. At the summit on February 08, 2005, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas proclaimed a formal end to fighting with Israel after more than four years of bloodshed.


    January 25,  Hamas won the Legislative election

    Ariel Sharon suffers a massive stroke.

    Ehud Olmert becomes Isael's prime minister, promising that the dividing wall will, in effect, be the new Israeli-West Bank border.

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